Social Dilemma and related Definitions Informally, a social dilemma is a collective action situation in which there is a conflict between individual and collective interest. It is a situation in which individuals could do better if they either changed their strategies or changed the rules of the game. Another informal definition is that a social dilemma "is defined by two properties: Nash equilibrium A set of strategies for the players in a game with the property that no player can benefit by deviating from his or her strategy, and thereby improve his or her payoffs while the strategies of other players are unchanged.
Brock and Daniel Wikler. The ethical justification for developing and providing the means to reduce the burden of disease in developing countries is self-evident. Nevertheless, those who pursue these laudable ends encounter ethical dilemmas at every turn.
The development of new interventions requires testing with human subjects, an activity fraught with controversy since the dawn of scientific medicine and especially problematic with poor and vulnerable participants in developing countries. Ethical dilemmas arising in setting priorities among interventions and among individuals in need of care are most acute when needs are great and resources few.
We address some of these concerns in this chapter, identifying some of the principal ethical issues that arise in the development and allocation of effective interventions for developing countries and discussing some alternative resolutions. We omit discussion of two other aspects of these ethical decisions: Health Resource Allocation Resource allocation in health and elsewhere should satisfy two main ethical criteria.
First, it should be cost-effective—limited resources for health should be allocated to maximize the health benefits for the population served. A cost-effectiveness analysis CEA of alternative health interventions measures their respective costs and benefits to determine their relative efficiency in the production of health.
Costs are measured in monetary terms; benefits are measured in health improvements. By dividing costs by benefits, one can obtain a cost-to-effectiveness ratio for each health intervention, and interventions can be ranked by these ratios.
Although a CEA is typically an economic analysis performed by health economists, it is also a measure of one ethical criterion for the evaluation of health programs. Cost-effectiveness is not merely an economic concern, because improving people's health and well-being is a moral concern, and an allocation of resources that is not cost-effective produces fewer benefits than would have been possible with a different allocation.
Producing more rather than fewer benefits for people is one important ethical consideration in evaluating actions and social policies.
Second, the allocation should be equitable or just; equity is concerned with the distribution of benefits and costs to distinct individuals or groups. The maximization of benefits, which is associated with the general philosophical moral theory of utilitarianism or consequentialism, however, is routinely criticized for ignoring those considerations Rawls Equity in health care distribution is complex and embodies several distinct moral concerns or issues that this chapter delineates Brock a.
There is no generally accepted methodology comparable to CEA for determining how equitable a distribution is; nevertheless, allocations are unsatisfactory if equity considerations are ignored.
Efficiency and equity can sometimes coincide. In some of the world's poorest countries, for example, health budgets support tertiary care and travel to clinics abroad for the elite and the well connected, even as the poor are denied effective, low-cost prevention or treatment for life-threatening diseases Birdsall and Hecht Moreover, because equity concerns the relative treatment of different individuals, CEA is largely unobjectionable when it is used only for evaluating alternative health interventions that would serve the same patients.
However, considerations of equity may conflict with cost-effectiveness and so may provide moral reasons for an allocation that is not cost-effective. The discussion in this chapter accepts that CEA identifies one important ethical criterion in evaluating health care interventions—producing the most benefits possible for individuals served by those interventions—and then focuses on the other ethical criterion of ensuring equitable distribution of those benefits.
This chapter considers two types of equity issues: It is worth noting that, when applied appropriately and broadly to all social conditions and programs that significantly influence health, CEA may often support using resources to affect the so-called social determinants of health—which largely affect the incidence of disease, disability, and premature mortality—rather than using those resources on health care to treat disease.
However, we shall focus largely on CEA in the evaluation of health care and public health programs. Issues in the Construction of a Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Cost-effectiveness analyses require decisions about which costs to include, which if any financial gains should be counted as offsetting costs, whether to include benefits beyond the effects of the intervention on health, and whether all health gains should be valued alike.
None of those decisions, in our view, is exclusively a technical issue, and CEA results reflect the analysts' ethical judgments on those issues.
This chapter assumes that some version of a quality-adjusted life year QALY is used to combine the two main benefits of health care— a protecting or improving health or health-related quality of life and b preserving life.
Calculating QALYs requires a metric evaluating the effect of different states of limitations in function on health-related quality of life, such as the Health Utilities Index Horsman and others The relative value of any particular health state, typically on a scale in which "0" represents death and "1" represents full, undiminished function or health is generally determined by soliciting a group of individuals' preferences for life in that state using standard gambles, time tradeoffs, visual analog scales, or person tradeoffs.
In all these methods, a common issue is whose preferences to use for valuing health states. The main debate has been whether to use a randomly selected group of citizens or to use people who have the particular disability or limitation in function being evaluated.whether individuals are products of society or society is a product of individuals.
I believe that in general, and in the beginning, the answer to this question, is that society is a human product. ISBN Editors Amélie Vallotton Preisig / Hermann Rösch / Christoph Stückelberger Ethical Dilemmas in the Information Society Ethical Dilemmas in the Information Society iridis-photo-restoration.comton Preisig / H.
Rösch / C. Stückelberger Codes of Ethics for Librarians and Archivists. SOC STUDY. PLAY. Sociology. Social science that studies human society and social behavior. individuals who accept society's approved goals, but not society's approved means to achieve them.
Social dilemma in which individuals over exploit a resource. Social Dilemma and related Definitions.
Informally, a social dilemma is a collective action situation in which there is a conflict between individual and collective interest. It is a situation in which individuals could do better if they either changed their strategies or changed the rules of the game.
The Individual in Society. Video Summary: Questioning is a strategy that all teachers employ. In his philosophy elective, Brian Poon uses questioning to stimulate students' critical thinking about the complex -- and sometimes competing -- theories in philosophy.
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