Physics and chemistry terminology

Speed is the distance traveled divided by the time of travel. For example; if you were to travel a distance of 10 miles in 2 hours time, then your average speed equals 5 miles per hour. Most textbooks bold face the units that also contain direction information. All quantities that are not vectors are called scalars.

Physics and chemistry terminology

Absolute magnitude A classification scheme, which compensates for the distance, differences to stars. It calculates the brightness that stars would appear to have if they were all at a defined, standard distance of 10 parsec Absolute scale Temperature scale set so that zero is at the theoretical lowest temperature possible.

It is denoted by the letter g. On the surface of the earth, its average value is 9.

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The value of g on the surface of the earth increases in going towards the poles from the equator. The acceleration due to gravity of the earth decreases with altitude and with depth inside the earth.

The value of g at the center of the earth is zero. Acceleration The rate of change of velocity of a moving object is called its acceleration. By definition, this change in velocity can result from a change in speed, a change in direction, or a combination of changes in speed and direction Adiabatic cooling The decrease in temperature of an expanding gas that involves no additional heat Physics and chemistry terminology out of the gas.

Physics and chemistry terminology

It is the cooling from the energy lost by expansion Adiabatic heating The increase in temperature of compressed gas that involves no additional heat flowing into the gas.

It is heating from the energy gained by compression Air mass A large, more or less uniform body of air with nearly the same temperature and moisture conditions throughout Allotropic forms Elements that can have several different structures with different physical properties-for example, graphite and diamond are two allotropic forms of carbon Alpha particle The nucleus of a helium atom two protons and two neutrons Physics and chemistry terminology as radiation from a decaying heavy nucleus; also known as an alpha ray Alternating current An electric current that first moves one direction, then the opposite direction with a regular frequency Amp Unit of electric current.

Ampere Full name of the unit Amp Amplitude of waves The maximum displacement of particles of the medium from their mean positions during the propagation of a wave is called the amplitude of the wave. Amplitude of an oscillation The maximum displacement of a body from its mean position during an oscillatory motion is called the amplitude of oscillation.

Angle of incidence Angle of an incident arriving ray or particle to a surface; measured from a line perpendicular to the surface the normal Angle of reflection Angle of a reflected ray or particle from a surface; measured from a line perpendicular to the surface the normal Angular Acceleration The rate of change of angular velocity of a body moving along a circular path is called its angular acceleration.

Angular acceleration is denoted by a. Angular Displacement The angle described at the center of the circle by a moving body along a circular path is called angular displacement.

It is measured in radians. Angular Momentum Quantum Number From quantum mechanics model of the atom, one of four descriptions of the energy state of an electron wave. The quantum number describes the energy sublevels of electrons within the main energy levels of an atom Angular Velocity The rate of change of angular displacement is called angular velocity.

Atom The smallest unit of an element that can exist alone or in combination with other elements Atomic mass unit Relative mass unit u of an isotope based on the standard of the carbon isotope, which is defined as a mass of exactly It is the number of chemical units in one mole of a substance Axis The imaginary line about which a planet or other object rotates Background Radiation Ionizing radiation alpha, beta, gamma, etc.

It is the same temperature as the condensation point Boundary The division between two regions of differing physical properties British thermal unit The amount of energy or heat needed to increase the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit abbreviated Btu Cathode rays Negatively charged particles electrons that are emitted from a negative terminal in an evacuated glass tube Celsius scale of temperature In the celsius scale of temperature, the ice-point is taken as taken as the lower fixed point 0 deg C and the steam-point is taken as the upper fixed point deg C.

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The interval between the ice point and steam point is divided into equal divisions. Thus, the unit division on this scale is 1degC. This scale was earlier called the centigrade scale. Centigrade Alternate name for the Celsius scale Centrifugal force An apparent outward force on an object following a circular path that.

This force is a consequence of the third law of motion Centripetal force The force required to pull an object out of its natural straight-line path and into a circular path; centripetal means Chain reaction A self-sustaining reaction where some of the products are able to produce more reactions of the same kind; in a nuclear chain reaction neutrons are the products that produce more nuclear reactions in a self-sustaining series Circular Motion The motion of a body along a circular path is called circular motion.

Coefficient of cubical expansion The increase in volume of a substance per unit original volume per degree rise in temperature is called its coefficient of cubical expansion.Q&A for active researchers, academics and students of physics.

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Chemical Physics – A subdiscipline of chemistry and physics that investigates physicochemical phenomena using techniques from atomic and molecular physics and condensed matter physics; it is the branch of physics that studies chemical processes from the point of view of physics.

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During the discharge operation, acid is consumed and water is produced. During the charge operation, water is consumed and acid is produced. Because sulfuric acid is much denser than water, a widely-used technique for checking the state-of-charge of a battery is to measure the specific gravity of the electrolyte.

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